The Basics

An integrated circuit is an electronic device that combines circuit elements on semiconductor crystal configured to perform an electronic function. Typically, an integrated circuit comprises of active electronic devices like transistors or diodes or passive electronic devices such as resistors and capacitors. These elements are configured upon a semiconductor crystal such as silicon. Broadly integrated circuits are classified into microprocessors and memories. A microprocessor typically performs information-processing functions because it has logic circuits capable of electronically performing information processing. Memories enable storing and retrieval of data.

An integrated circuit is thus formed when an electrical circuit is embodied in a chip. All the active and passive components are created in the semiconductor wafer during fabrication process itself. An integrated circuit is a product, in its final form or an intermediate form, in which the elements, at least one of which is an active element, and of some or all of the interconnection are integrally formed in and/or a piece of material and which is intended to perform an electronic function. These components, which are made during fabrication process, are inseparable.

An integrated circuit topography, also known as a layout design, semiconductor chip, or mask work, is the three-dimensional disposition, however expressed, of the elements at least one of which is an active element, and of some or all of the interconnections of an integrated circuit, or such a three-dimensional disposition prepared for an integrated circuit intended for manufacture.